25th America’s Cup 1983  Newport, USA
Yacht / Country IL MORO DI VENEZIA V / Italy Sail Number ITA-25
Yacht / Country BLACK MAGIC / NZL Sail Number NZL-32
29th AMERICA's CUP 1995 San Diego, USA
Yacht / Country YOUNG AMERICA (Mermaid) Sail Number USA-36
Yacht / Country   AMERICA 3 (America Cubed) Sail Number          USA-23
Yacht / Country NEW ZEALAND / NZL Sail Number NZL 60
30th AMERICA's CUP 2000  Auckland, New Zealand 
Yacht / Country  LUNA ROSSA / Italy Sail Number  ITA-45
28th America’s Cup 1992 San Diego USA 
Country Yacht AC72 Oracle Team USA Sail Number : none
The 12 Metre Class
“The International Rule” ( Metre Rule )
© K. Urtz 2010
                                                          chain girth            skin girth L = waterline length (LWL) d = difference between skin girth and chain girth S = sail area                F = freeboard ( area between the waterline and a specified  deck edge ) 2,37 = a mathematical constant
The International Rule differs between classes, the smallest called 5-m and the biggest has a 23-m rating.  Best known is probably the 12-Metre Class sailing in 8 America’s Cups from 1958 to 1987. They followed as far less expensive yachts the impressing and costly J-Class of the 30’s . Their construction has been stopped by the Second World War. 12-m does not mean the length of a yacht in metres. The “m” is the term for a mathematical equitation only (a recommendation to use metric units.). The 12 Metres of the AC have a LWL of about 14  m, a total length of about 20 m and displacements of around  20 tons. The formula keeps a balance between the below parameters. A change of one of the figures requires the change of the others - in order not to exceed the number 12. The rule has been changed three times, the last version has following rule
 “The International Rule” ( Metre Rule ) Around 1900 the European Yacht Clubs were looking for an international rating rule to assure that a yacht can race in the same class and under the same specifications in every country. Initiated  by the British YRA (Yacht Racing Association ) and created in several international conferences ( final ones 1906 in London and Berlin ) the International Rule (Metre Rule ) has been ratified 1907 in Paris. On this occasion the international delegates formed the IYRU ( International Yacht Racing Union ) now replaced by the ISAF ( International Sailing Federation). As rating bodies the Lloyd’s Register (GB) the German Lloyd (D) and the Bureau Veritas (F) have been applied. At that time the USA has sent observers  but continued with the Universal Rule based on a formula of N.Herreshoff.
Outfit of a conventional 12 Metre America’s Cup yacht
wave-breaker       1 Wellenbrecher hatches / spinnaker-handling 2 Deckluken / Spinnaker-Handling. vang track 3 Traveller für den Baumniederholer boom vang 4 Baumniederholer pit for the mastman 5 Cockpit für den Mastmann. genoa coffee-grinder 6 Pedestral für die Genuawinschen. genoa-sheet tracks 7 Traveller für die Genua-Holepunkte mainsail coffee grinder 8 Pedestral für die Großwinsch genoa winches 9 Genuawinschen
pit for the tailers 10 Cockpit für die Genuatrimmer main-sheet winch 11 Winsch für die Großschot running back-stays 12 Bewegliche Backstagen double-wheels station 13 Doppesteuerstand mainsail -traveller 14 Traveller für die Großschot spinnaker winches 15 Winschen für den Spinnaker main-sheet winch 16 Großschotsysem rudder-blade 17 Ruderblatt trim-tab 18 Trimmklappe
More details about the 12m class tells the site of the famous American yacht designer Sparkman & Stephens: http://www.sparkmanstephens.com/yachtdesign/sailyachts/twelvemeter_designs.php
Yacht / Country : Australia II / Aus Sail Number :       12 KA 6
Yacht / Country :   Liberty / USA Sail Number :        12 US 40
Yacht / Country Stars & Stripes ’87 /USA Sail Number 12 US 55
Yacht / Country Kookaburra III / Aus  Sail Number 12 KA 15
26th AMERICA's CUP 1987
Fremantle , Australia
Fremantle , Australia
27th AMERICA's CUP 1988 San Diego, USA
Yacht / Country : “The Big Boat” / NZL Sail Number :       K  KZ - 1
Yacht / Country :  Stars & Stripes / USA Sail Number :        US - 1
Yacht / Country : “ALINGHI “ / CH Sailnumber :        SUI 64
Yacht / Country : " NEW ZEALAND “, NZL Sailnumber :           NZL - 82
Yacht / Country : “ALINGHI “ / CH Sailnumber :         SUI -100
32nd AMERICA's CUP2007  Valencia Spain
Yacht / Country New Zealand Sail Number :  NZL- 92
Country Yacht /: USA (former BOR 90) Sail Number : USA - 17
33rd AMERICA's CUP 2010  Valencia, Spain
Yacht / Country : Alinghi 5 / CH Sail Number : SUI 
Country Yacht / Boat#2 /NZL5 “AOTEAROA” Sail Number : none
31st America’s Cup 2003, Auckland , New Zealand
34th AMERICA's CUP 2013  San Francisco, USA
Sailing http://www.sailingscuttlebutt.com/     General sailing news with a useful Google search archive. http://www.vsail.info/   The cost reduced platform of the former Valencia Sailing, with archives of high quality pics covering 2005 - 2010 mainly.   America’s Cup http://www.cupinfo.com/ Independent website with top news and pics about the 34th AC,its wingsail-cats, and past America's Cup events. http://www.sail-world.com/ Sailing, sail-racing and cruising news site updated constantly by contributors around the world http://www.cupineurope.com/ Ex Hauraki News, once a French-English website about the AC, but most info disappeared. Has still a valuable list of all IACC yachts with a picture of each boat http://www.cupedia.de/  German website about the AC of recent years http://www.americascup.com/ Official website of the 34th AC   Websites of the Teams 2013 http://oracle-team-usa.americascup.com/ ORACLE USA defender Golden Gate YC http://artemis-racing.americascup.com/ Artemis Racing Sweden/Challenger of Record http://emirates-team-new-zealand.americascup.com/ Emirates Team New Zealand http://energy-team.americascup.com/ Energy Team France http://bar.americascup.com/ BAR/ Ben Ainsly Racing http://www.americascup.com/en/ Team-Korea = web closed with their withdrawal http://luna-rossa-challenge-2013.americascup.com/ Luna-Rossa-Challenge-2013/ http://china-team.americascup.com/ China-Team/ http://www.mascalzonelatino.it/ Mscalzone Latino, Italy, former Challenger of Record, Cancelled its nomination  early May 2011                                                              12 Meter History http://www.12mrclass.com/cms/   Website of ITMA , the International 12 Metre Association http://sail-3d.com/12er/ Commercial sailing platform with an informative 12-Meter charter section. http://www.trivia.de/ Website about the German 12m Trivia with a list of all built 12-metres http://www.ultimatesail.com/  Closed down 2011 one of the best, with much useful information, including the Deed of Gift,the 12-Meters and the IACC yachts and their crews incl. the 2003 AC. http://www.usa-61.com  Closed down 2011 Website of the former US owners of US 61/ AC 1987, with pics and information about her restoration
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