FINAL Louis Vuitton Cup 1992 Syndicate              Yacht                        Sail # Il Moro de Venecia     I Moro de Venecia    ITA - 25 NZL Challenge     New Zealand               NZL- 20
* bolted sail number =  challenger of the LVC
Syndicate               Yacht                        Sail # NZL Challenge      New Zealand              NZL- 20 Il Moro de Venecia      I Moro de Venecia    ITA - 25 Nippon Challenge      Nippon                        JPN - .26 Le Defi Francais 95     Ville de Paris              FRA - 27
Winer and official challenger became Il Moro di Venecia ITA-25 of Italy. She defeated Kiwi Magic NZL-20 but could not gain the America’s Cup.
The Louis Vuitton Cup 1992
Winer and official challenger became Black Magic NZL 32 of New Zealand.
KIWI Magic (NZL - 20) lost the final of the LVC 1992   The challenger from New Zealand carried a tandem keel with a 9 ton lead bulb between.
Yacht / Country :   KIWI MAGIC/NZL Sail Number :        NZL 20 Syndicate :            New Zealand Challenge CEO :                    Michael Fay  Yacht Club:            Royal New Zealand Yacht                                                    Squadron Designer :             Bruce Farr Boat Builder :   Skipper:                Rod Davis 1992
The challenger from New Zealand carried a tandem keel with a 9 ton lead bulb between. She had no rudder-blade but was steered by flaps on the keel.  Yacht circles expected that NZL 20 will win the LVC because she was light, fast and handy with a professional crew. At the end she got troubles with an outrigger on top of her bow-sprit which was belayed with a line of her spinnaker. With this trick the boat could sail very fast gybes. Despite a controversy if really the IYRR sailing rule was fringed, NZL 20 was fined and lost one won race in the final following a protest of ITA 25. At the end the crew was changed, conventional spinnaker manoeuvre could not be extensively trained any more and NZL 20 lost the final – close - but lost.
Ville de Paris (FRA-27) sailed in the semifinals of the LVC 1992
Yacht/Country :  Ville de Paris Sail Number :     FRA - 27 Syndicate :      CEO :                Marc Pajot, Yron jacob Yacht Club:        Yacht Cub de Sete Designer :          Philipe Briand Boat Builder :     MAG & VMG, PINTA Skipper :.            Marc Pajot ( French Kiss 1987)   1992
After FRA-2 and FRA-8 the FRA-27 was the 3rd French yacht. FRA-2 was  overall the first IACC yacht which was launched from dock. She was financed by Marc Pajot's own expense. FRA-2 was fast but was sold due to financial reasons to the American AC applicant Beach Boys Syndicate. This team canceled shortly after its application and sold the yacht to the America3 Foundation. The sailing idol Marc Pajot (see French Kiss / AC 1987) tried as a result to dismiss the syndicate manager Eric A. Ogden. The politician Jacques Chirac then mayor of Paris tried to prevent this action and threatened a public subsidy stop of 6.4 million U$.  Eric Ogden wanted now to fire Pajot itself, but failed. A new owner, the industrialist Pierre Legris took over the syndicate  with a U$ 7 million donation. He diminished Ogden, confirmed the application of Pajot and calmed the situation. FRA-27 reached the semifinals in the LVC.
After FRA-2 and FRA-8 the FRA-27 was the 3rd French yacht.
Nippon (JPN-26) reached the semifinals of LOUIS VUITTON CUP (LVC) 1992   Nippon Challenge built three yachts, JPN-3, JPN-6 and JPN-26. JPN-26 reached the semifinals of the LVC.
Yacht / Country :  Nippon Sail Number :       JPN-26 Syndicate :           Nippon Challenge  CEO :                  Tatsumitsu Yamasaki Yacht Club:           Nippon Ocean Racing Club Designer :             Bruce Farr, Ichiro Yokoyama                              Kennosuke Hayashi, Akira Hubota Boat Builder :  Skipper :.              Chris Dickson, Makoto Namba
Although Japan is an island with a fishing industry playing always an extremely important role the Japanese are not a sailing nation, as e.g. the New Zealanders. This was their first challenge and the start was difficult. There was still beside Nippon Challenge a 2nd applicant called Bengal Bay Challenge. This syndicate was immediately in the media, when it bought the 12m yachts Australia II and IV as test boats at U$ 7 mio. from Alan Bond. Due to lack of money they could neither order a new IACC yacht nor pay the remaining registration fee. They were later in bankruptcy. Nippon Challenge built three yachts, JPN-3, JPN-6 and JPN-26. JPN-26 reached the semifinals of the LVC. Employing  great Japanese designers the syndicate hired as skipper the sail-as and  New Zealander Chris Dickson. (see KZ-7 Kiwi Magic AC 87) Having a lot of experience he was known to create problems with his crews because of his toughness. The Los Angeles Times has asked  pretty soon if the team could withstand him 11/2 years. They did. The experienced and highly regarded Makoto Namba was the Japanese co-skipper and liaison officer on the Nippon.
Yacht / Country :  Spirit of Australia / Aus Sail Number :       AUS-21 Syndicate :          Spirit of Australia Challenge  CEO :  I              Ian Murray Yacht Club:          Darling Harbour YC  Designer :  :         Ian Murray Boat Builder :      John McConaghy Skipper :.             Peter Gilmour (Kookaburra 87)  1992
Spirit of Australia Challenge was the syndicate of Ian Murray, at 24 the youngest skipper of an AC on the underfunded Advance / 1983 and the talented organizer of Kevin Perry's fleet of Kookaburra I-III / 1987. AUS-21 is a construction Murray's, who was by the way heavily involved for the elaboration of the IACC formula. Originally, in 1992 a collaboration with Alan Bond (Australia II / 1983) was planned, but failed due to Bonds private financial turbulences and legal turmoil. Murray managed the initial financing through the support of approximately 15,000 people before major sponsors, such as Qantas joined the syndicate. The yacht could not convince in the LVC .but it belongs to the IACCs finest boats ever built. The yacht had a tandem keel with a lead bulb and no rudder. Later she got a conventional fin and a rudder. In the summer of 2004 the yacht  roamed - sponsored by the "Financial Times" - with tourists in Sydney Harbour a rock, lost the keel and capsized spectacularly. There were no serious injured.
Spirit of Austrlia (AUS-21) resigned after the RR3 of the LOUIS VUITTON CUP (LVC) from 1992   Spirit of Australia Challenge was the syndicate of Ian Murray, at 24 the youngest skipper
Challenge Australia (AUS-17) was last after the RR3 of the LVC 1992
Yacht / Country :  Challenge Australia Sail Number :       AUS - 17 Syndicate :     CEO :                 Syd Fischer Yacht Club:         Cruising YC of Australia Designer :           Dr. Peter van Oossanen Boat Builder :  Skipper :             Phil Thompson, Hugh Treharne
Syd Fischer, a builder-merchant and an excellent Offshore sailor (world champion in the one-ton class) nominated a "low budget" challenge, which he funded himself. Without billboards of sponsors his yacht is quite plain with only few published images. Designer of the AUS-17 is Dr. Peter van Oossanen, those expert in the testing laboratory in the Dutch town of Wageningen who tested the fin keel of Australia II. (He recently gave an interview to a boat magazine and claimed that he (and not Ben Lexcen) invented and built the fin keel and caused again the break out of an old quarrel that the yacht was  not purely an Australian boat obstructing the Deed of Gift. With this contention the  New York YC tried in vain to disqualify the yacht from the 1983 Cup. As Ben Lexcen died in 1989 and can not defend himself this matter is not cooked up any more.) The AUS-17 carried a mighty, heavy and rotating bulb on a fin. It should prevent the drift of the yacht but disturbed ultimately her straight travel property. The "Challenge Australia" reached  in the LVC after RR3 the last ranking. Soon after her rig and equipment have been removed.
Syd Fischer, a builder-merchant and an excellent Offshore sailor
c.K.Urtz 2012
Yacht / Country :  Tre Kronor Sail Number :       SWE - 19 Syndicate :      CEO :             Thomas Walin Yacht Club:     Stenungsbaden Yacht Cub Designer :       Peter Norin, Lars Bergstram                        Haan Sodergren, Dr. Sven-Ofaf Ridder Boat Builder :  Kilian Bushe Skipper :.        Gunar Krantz 1992
Tre Kronor (SWE-19) ended the LVC in RR3 with 8 points   Sweden sailed already in the 12m class in 1977 and 1980 with Sverige 2  two challenges in the "Challenger
Sweden sailed already in the 12m class in 1977 and 1980 with Sverige 2, two challenges in the "Challenger Series", the between Baron Bich and the New York Yacht Club agreed precursor of the Louis Vouitton Cup. The syndicate was represented at that time by the Gothenburg YC. A new generation of sailors bought in late 1987 the 12m "South Australia" (see AC 1987) because they expected, like many other syndicates, a continuation of the 12m-rule after the AC 1988 disaster. But after 1988 in many countries the interest of potential sponsors disappeared to finance a challenge. This  exactly hit the new Swedish syndicate. Because of lack on time and money the SWE-19  could be only completed and transported to San Diego at the last moment. The "Tre Kronor" was in San Diego only 3 days on the water. before the official regatta started. The team even decided to buy an additional fore-sail  instead of a canvas which should hide the yacht's underwater construction.
Lack of training, they won 3 and lost 18 races. Krantz said this was also a record, "because they came late and left early."
Yacht / Country :  Espana 92- Quinto Centenario Sail Number :       ESP - 22 Syndicate :           Desafio Espana Copa America 92 CEO :                   Miguel Aquilo Yacht Club:          Monte Real Cub                             de Yates de Bayona Designer :            I.-E. Joaquon, Gonzales Devesa                              Manuel Ruiz Evira, Dirgo Colon Boat Builder :       Astilleros Espanoles Skipper :.              Pedro Campos
Espana 92 - Quinto Centenario (ESP-22) finished the LVC in RR3 with 27 points
c.K.Urtz 2012
Although the Spaniards, including King Juan Carlos (Olympian 1972  at Kiel in the Dragon class) have excellent sailors, it was not sure whether to participate in the AC in 1992. When collecting money the "Columbus-year" with the celebration of the Discovery of America for 500 years helped the team so magnificent, that they  immediately decided to apply for a Cup challenge. The syndicate had two yachts, the ESP 5 and ESP-22 under contract. The latter sailed in the LVC and finished  the RoundRobin 3 with 27 points.
The syndicate had two yachts, the ESP 5 and ESP-22 under contract.
28th AMERICA's CUP 1992  San Diego, USA
Il Moro de Venecia I: AC I-1:. The first yacht in the new IACC class  
Yacht / Country	    IL MORO DI VENEZIA I/ Italy	 Sail Number	    AC   /  I - 1 Syndicate :          Il Moro di Venezia Syndicate	 Yacht Club:          Compania Della Vela Yacht Club, Venice	 CEO	                   Raul Gardini	 Designer :	           German Freres	 Boat Builder :      Tencara at Porto Marghera	 Skipper: 1992
The famous Argentinian  naval architect German Frers designed numerous commercial yachts. From 1976 to 1987 he drew for Raul Gardini the third of the 3 successful Maxi-Yachts, called “ Il Moro de Venecia I-III “ as well. ITA-1 the first yacht built according the new IACC-rule, looks a little bit like these Maxi-designs. As the famous logo of the “can” was not published yet, the sail was marked with an underlined AC  like the former 12 . “ Il Moro de Venecia I “ / ITA-1 was christened in Venice with an impressive ceremony. She never sailed in the LVC. ITA-1 was fourth at the World Championships, but was primarily used as a trial boat for improvements to the later models. In 1994 she was leased by a Russian challenger and sailed again in the World Championship with the sail number RUS-1 and an impressive red spinnaker with the golden “Tencara lion” (see below). He had paid the first part of the AC entrance fee but gave up because of money problems. In 1998 she has been bought by a Chicago businessman as a daysailer. In 2000 she was sold to a businessman in Sausalito,California. She began as a sailing-billboard (sails with banners) and in the tourist charter. She was in good condition, but was painted in a swimming pool-like turquoise.
Il Moro di Venecia" means in English "The Moor of Venice" in accordance  to "Othello". At the bow and the stern she carries as a symbolic drawing a head of a lion, the emblem of Venice. This is also the company logo of the Tencara shipyard.
The famous Argentinian  naval architect German Frers designed numerous commercial yachts.
Wek Rossii (RUS-24) arrived in San Diego, but never sailed in the LVC:  
The Cyrillic text means  “WEK ROSSII” = Age of Russia
Yacht / Country :  Wek Rossii (Age of Russia) / Russia Sail Number :       RUS-24 Syndicate :           Red Star 92 Syndicate  CEO :                  Oleg Larionov Yacht Club:          Ocean Racing Club of St. Petersburg Designer :            Oleg Larionov  Boat Builder :      “Energia space center”  Skipper : 1992
The Yacht Club of St. Petersburg, formerly Leningrad, is one of the oldest sailing clubs in the world. The first attempt of Russia to take part in the America's Cup failed due to competence disputes between Moscow and Petersburg and at the end on a lack of money. The official, and by the San Diego YC recognized challenger was the Red Star 92 Syndicate, which was sponsored by the St. Petersburg YC. First they built a test yacht in Aluminium for training around St. Petersburg. The second yacht in carbon-fiber has been finished so late, that it could be only transported by plane to arrive  in time. But the YC had no sufficient money. Suddenly Moscow representatives  nominated to the surprise of all as another official challenger the Age of Russia Syndicate. Their yacht has been flown together with her crew in an Antonov- 124 to San Diego but took part to no competition. At the beginning  they were not allowed to sail in the San Diego Bay because of military installations. Later they received a special approval from the Navy and the Coast Guard to sail outside the Bay. As the Red Star 92 Syndicate had no boat, but the official recognition as challenger, the Age of Russia Syndicate tried to establish a mixed crew, which failed and therefore the whole challenge
. While the "Energia Space Centre," has carried out all major space projects from the "Sputnik" to the  "Buran" space shuttle, the "Wek Rossii" was considered as a clumsy and slow yacht. Later she was allegedly jacked up on a storage place as a blocked deposit of a bank. In 1995 her hull - without sails - has been offered at 25,000 U$. (with estimated costs for additional equipment of around U$ 200,000). Because of magnificent alterations she had be reclassified in 2000 and received the sail number RUS-62 again for a Russian candidate who withdrew later his challenge Then she sailed as tourist attraction along with the America II (see AC 1987 "Geronimo") for a company in British Columbia (Canada). 2003 the two yachts were offered again for sale. The fate of "Wek Rossii" (Age of Russia) is unknown.
© San Diego Boat Movers * * San Diego Boat Movers comment :
'AGE OF RUSSIA', a Russian syndicate entry for the 1992 America's Cup challenge,  was flown in to San Diego in December of 1991, the same month the Soviet Union was dissolved.   Unfinished, under funded, and mired in internal disputes and legal issues, this boat was soon abandoned at a San Diego boatyard.  After years of moving from one local yard to another, including several years at our storage facility, the boat was sold to a Canadian group and moved to Canada.
Yacht / Country : Slovenia ( and Croatia  ) Sail Number :      SLO - 4 Syndicate :          Transoceansko regatno druatvo  “Yacoma" CEO :                  Bojan Butolen, Ljubo Versic, Neno Kovacevic       Yacht Club:          changed from the Galeb Yacht Club in Croatia                             to the Maribor Yacht Club in Slovenia Designer :            unknown team and Neno Kovacevic Boat Builder :     “Yacoma” – team, on a place in                             the vineyards around Maribor
c.K.Urtz 2012
Only a handful of pictures have been published, showing her hull of mahogany covered by a white GFR ( glass fiber reinforced plastic ) deck and cockpit mould.
Rudder, keel and the sails are just an assumption how she could have look like. The yacht has been built in a hat in the middle of wineyards close to the land-locked town Maribor / Slovenia. When the situation became critical, the boat was transported to Venice in Italy. 18 months later she was found still jacked up in the courtyard in Venice,filled with tons of rainwater, but not damaged. Further faith not known. The famous measurer Ken McAlpine told once a magazine, that even he has visited this crazy construction site On December 1, 1991 Barbara Lloyd of the NEW YORK TIMES wrote a long article about the faith of Slo-4, an ambitious project of some Croatian and Slovenian sailors to challenge the AC. It failed at the end because of the lack of money and time caused by the Yugoslavian Civil War.
Below the link to this fantastic story
SLO-4 the America’s Cupper of mahogany plywood, which never touched the sea, but was filled at the end with tons of rainwater.
This is an interview with Neno Kovacevic, shipbuilding engineer. In Spring 1989, in Zgornji Velki, Steiermark, Ljubo Versic and Bojan Butolen founded Transoceansko regatno druätvo Yacoma" with the idea to join AC. In August they took as a partner N. Kovacevic and discussed with him the possibility to build a ship according to the AC rules.ln Autumn 1989 all possible participants had first meeting in premises of International sailing Union IYRU (now ISAF) in London. They agreed that 4 or 5 "syndicates" will have one representative and with Slovenians were Spaniards, French, Germans and Fins. Germans and Fins gave up even before Slovenians. Slovenians had the best cooperation with Japanese and Italian "syndicate". Japanese gave them one of their carbon masts for symbolic price of USD 1 .With Italians they discussed construction details, especially with famous constructor German Frers and saw Italian ship "II moro di Venezia" Italians at that time had the biggest budget (120 mil USD) and built several ships. Slovenian plan was to build 2 ships: one wooden for crew training and, if everything were OK, it would be used as model for a second made of carbon. First ship was completely built in Zgornji Velki but second one was never finished. As far as other equipment was concerned, everything was ready. earlier mentioned Japanese mast was in States, all deck equipment was bought and sails were agreed with other "syndicates". After Germans gave up, as a potential Sponsor appeared BASF ready to invest quite some money. Problem was that all financial transaction went through Belgrade and at that time political crises already started and that's why ship was transferred to Italy, so money went directly to Italy. Second reason was that they started to cooperate with Mr. Cantoni, owner of Italian shipbuilding Company Vector Marine. lt was just by Chance; they wanted already to give up and went to meeting in Nice to announce that, but on the way they visited Raul Gardini, boss of Italian team. He mentioned that Cantoni is producing 20 m motor boats and wants them to be used äs a judge boats on AC race. So, he wanted to cooperate with one of "syndicate" to be included in AC events. Gardini was not interested and that is how Slovenians sorted their project. So, in September 1991 they moved ship to shipyard near Venice. They covered it with furnir and prepared a lot of equipment. Transport to States was settled and it would be paid by Gardini, what is one more proof about good cooperation between teams. Despite all that they ran out of time and money to finish the ship. At that time organization board calculated that minimal budget is 4,2 mil USD. This figure is nowadays much higher. So, ship remained in the courtyard of Venice Company. Kovacevic saw it year and a half ago. lt is interesting to mention that weight of body (with deck and inside construction) was 2,4 tons and in courtyard was supported on both ends. When Kovacevic saw ship, inside was ca 1 meter of water and this is ca 80 (?) tons. lt would be expected that this load would break a ship, but it didn't.
c.K.Urtz 2012
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