Blue Arrow
27th AMERICA's CUP 1988 San Diego, USA 1988
After Sir Michael Fay had lost the LVC Final in 1987 he tried to press Dennis Conner
After Sir Michael Fay had lost the LVC Final in 1987 he tried to press Dennis Conner by a challenge on the very short notice of 1988. Conner denied the challenge. The following court actions and decision were not as far as numerous as in the AC33 but confusing enough. The first decision fined the San Diego YC to accept NZLs challenge. The next appeal that the catamaran should be eliminated as an unfair yacht - ordered both “to find that out on the water”.  US -1 won 2 : 0. NZL approached the New York Court again and was declared as winner in two instances. The appealed Supreme Court decided finally for the US YC as winner.
Stars & Stripes / H 3: U.S. - 1 winner of the America's Cup 1988   Under the wings of the San Diego Yacht Club as official defender Dennis Conner managed
Yacht / Country :  Stars & Stripes H 3 / USA Sail Number :       US - 1 Syndicate :           Sail America Foundation ;                             America’s Cup Defender Yacht Club:           San Diego Yacht Club Designer :            Sail America Design Team  Boat Builder :  Skipper:               Dennis Conner 1988
Under the wings of the San Diego Yacht Club as official defender Dennis Conner managed the construction of a smaller test cat and 2 racing boats. One had conventional soft sails and was called S1. The other one with a wing sail was called H 3 and won the races on the water 2 : 0. The overall-length of US-1 was about 1/2 of the KZ-1. The unique, rigid wing sail has been eveloped by technicians coming from the NASA and the aircraft industry. The area after the rot-able mast was covered with clear folios. The flap had a surface of slight- grey ones. The AC 1988 is also called the “mismatch”
© San Diego Boat Movers
In 1988, a New Zealand syndicate challenged the San Diego Yacht Club to an A/C race using 'KZ1', a huge, fast, unorthodox,132' boat with a 40 man crew. Surprised, and not having time to design or build such a boat, Conner answered the challenge by building a cutting edge catamaran with a wing sail. The high-tech sail is pictured here, on our trailer, at the Rutan Scaled Composites factory in Mojave, CA. The 'STARS & STRIPES' cat went on to win the farcical race by a big margin, and also prevailed in the final of three associated law suits.
San Diego Boat Movers comment :
Big Boat": KZ - 1 hapless challenger for the America's Cup 1988   KZ-1 was said to be the fastest monohull of her size at that time.
Yacht / Country : “The Big Boat” / NZL Sail Number :        K  KZ - 1 Syndicate :            New Zealand Challenge ‘88 CEO:                    Sir Michael Fay Yacht Club:           Mercury Bay Boating Club Designer :            Bruce Farr Boat Builder :       Mt Wellington, Auckland Skipper:               David Barres 1988
The merchant banker Sir Michael Fay tried to challenge the San Diego Yacht Club respectively  Dennis Conner with this Big Boat of 135 ft (36,6 m ) - but not exceeding the 90 ft  (27,4 m)  waterline as stipulated by the Deed of Gift - He wanted  to sail already in 1988 hoping that the USA can not  arrange an equivalent “monster” within this short time - and to lose therefore the Cup on paper. The club refused the challenge but was finally forced by the New York Court to accept it. The deck view explains her another nickname “aircraft-carrier”. She had a crew of 40 people, 8 of them operating the “coffee-grinders” below deck. Images show that 15 -20 of them were just sitting on the  windward  overhang  in order to balance the yacht’s heeling. KZ-1 was said to be the fastest monohull of her size at that time.
Peter de Savary reached the LVC Challenger Final in 1983 with his self-financed Victory 83 campaign but lost then against Australia II. At the AC 1987 he did not take part but placed a challenge for the next Cup with an outstanding monohull. This was the hydrofoil-stabilized "Blue Arrow". It was about the size of Conner's catamaran Stars & Stripes, but had a single hull that was as narrow as a canoe.  It was launched officially on 20th July 1988, 90 days after the start of design. The boat was fitted with two hydrofoils at the end of a crossbeam. This beam could be hydraulically shifted along the hull by about 30 cm. The hydrofoils were not meant to lift the vessel out of the water; they were designed to supply just a heeling moment by having equal and opposite angles of attack for each foil thus generating no
Blue Arrow “Radical” / GB  Peter de Savary’s hydrofoil glider This radical yacht was supported on a crossbar by two stilts with hydrodynamic wings
On the Blue Arrow I was thankfully made aware by e-mail from David Redfern, at that time  among other functions the press spokesman for the Blue Arrow Yachting Syndicate. The valuable explanation of the hydrofoils’ function has been provided by Prof. Steve P. Fiddes Technical Consultant/Blue Arrow Challenge and now with Flow Solutions Limited, UK.*
net vertical force on the vessel, but just a righting moment to counter the heeling moment induced by the sail. A crew member stood in a small cockpit in the main hull. He monitored  the hydrofoil settings via an instrument display in the cockpit, and controlled the hydrofoils with a hand crank to balance them in a very small range of angles to control the heeling of the yacht. This meant the vessel had to be under way to generate any appreciable righting moment. At the low speeds, large inflatable floats were placed under the crossbeam by the support crew (for docking, etc). The mast was a sophisticated aerodynamic design and looked like a wing, but carried soft sails made of Kevlar. Michael Fay,  who had nominated his big boat KZ-1 for the 1988 AC,was originally interested in an elimination regatta of all challengers and reached a verbal agreement with de Savary to race in a challenger series. But when he saw the Blue Arrow he withdrew his promise as he was only prepared to challenge  yachts about equal in size to the KZ-1. Then, when the New York Court decided Fay and Conner "should settle their conflict on the water" (The a Deed of Gift race with only two yachts limited to 3 rounds) Blue Arrow was effectively excluded from the Cup. The Blue Arrow team planned to transport the disassembled yacht by airplane to San Diego, at least for testing purposes. However, while sailing from her home base at Falmouth  October 27th 1988, an accident occurred that led to severe damage of the vessel.  Sailing at high speed (estimated at  30 kts) in waves the bow "dig in" and the vessel pitch-poled, fracturing the hull.  A replacement boat was not built. The Blue Arrow was a radical design and the first sign that the AC could be sailed with completely different boats (see AC 2010 and AC 2013) ______________________________________________________________________________ Another sailing project that has used Flow Solutions' hydrodynamic design methods is the World's fastest sailing vessel over 500m (65.45 kts) and a nautical mile (55.32 kts)! Don’t miss this link:
Yacht / Country :  Blue Arrow “Radical” / GB Sail Number :       no number issued Syndicate :          Blue Arrow Yachting Syndicat CEO :                  Peter de Savary Yacht Club:          Royal Burnham YC Designers:           Derek Clark (Technical Director)                           Tony Castro                           Ed Dubois                           Rob Humphreys                           Jo Richards                           Geoff Willis (hydrodynamics)                           Peter Heppel (sails)                           Graeme Winn  (instrumentation) Technical Consultants:  Steve Fiddes Boat Builder:           Various                         Final assembly and launch at Falmouth Docks          
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